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Violence and Gender Roles in Video Games

April 29, 2011 Leave a comment

It would be incredibly hard to argue that video games are a powerful learning tool that address significant cognitive learning methodologies, and then to also pretend that excessive violence and gender stereotypes therein do not affect players. A study conducted by Smith, Lachlan, and Tamborini (2003) concluded that 68% of the popular games sampled included violence, even those rated “E” by the ratings board. This study suggests that even young children who play video games regularly will be presented with a significant amount of violence from those games. Dietz (1998) suggests that video games are becoming increasingly important in the social identities of children and that violence and gender roles will negatively impact the self-identification of children who grow up playing video games.

In my opinion, while the research is not conclusive, it comes down pretty heavily on the side that children watching and experiencing excessive violence through media are likely to find violence more acceptable. Gender roles are likely to have a similar effect. However, in the same way that a teacher must use care and planning when introducing a video game into the classroom, parents must use care and planning when introducing video games to their children. Helping children identify gratuitous violence and contextualize it, can go a long way toward helping children compartmentalize that violence. In this way children, and students, cease being passive viewers of violence and gender roles in video games, but become participants and critics of the portrayal of violence and gender roles in video games. As adults, we are capable of understanding that the roles we play in games are not necessarily intended to be emulated, and teaching that to our children is an increasingly vital part of parenting.

References

Dietz, T. L. (1998). An Examination of Violence and Gender Role Portrayals in Video Games: Implications for Gender Socialization and Aggressive Behavior. Retrieved April 2011, from Procon.org: http://videogames.procon.org/sourcefiles/Dietz.pdf

Smith, S. L., Lachlan, K., & Tamborini, R. (2003, March). Popular Video Games: Quantifying the Presentation of Violence and Its Context. Retrieved April 2011, from Lionlamb.org: http://www.lionlamb.org/research_articles/jobem%20article.pdf

Categories: Uncategorized

Games as constructivist learning

April 15, 2011 Leave a comment

When first contemplating the use of commercially available non-educational games into a classroom environment, it is reasonable to believe that the curriculum will have to be wrapped around the game. The idea that the game itself can actually move the understanding of the curriculum forward takes a little getting used to. However, from a constructivist point of view, using games in the classroom is not so great a leap.

Falance (2001) discusses how practitioners of constructivism believe in creating environments of learning through cognitive apprenticeships. Learners must interact with experts to experience how they think and solve problems. In many ways today’s commercial games follow this model. Gee (2003) argues that the underlying architecture of commercial games helps foster mastery of content by pushing players to the limits of their abilities, but always staying within those boundaries, creating a sense of both pleasure and frustration. In this way players gain new knowledge, and are motivated to continue to gain new knowledge.

Another aspect where game playing and constructivism coincide is in collaborative work. One of the most rapidly growing game genres is the massive multiplayer online role-playing game concept, like World of Warcraft. In these games, players are able to work on their own to learn and level up, but the game favors the use of team play. As social animals the act of sharing new information and learning experiences is important in contextualizing what we learn (Falance, 2001). These games provide us with an opportunity to not only learn from our immediate peers, but also to interact with players and students all over the world.

Games can therefore help to create a constructivist learning environment for students, and the teacher can become a facilitator of learning rather than a provider of non-contextual information. In order for appropriate learning to occur, the students must have an opportunity to reflect on what they have learned, and must be provided guidance to avoid missing the learning opportunity because they were too distracted by the game content (CitEd Research Center). Teachers must therefore provide guidance to students to understand how to apply the learning that occurred in the game back into the real world, and provide a safe classroom environment for students to explore these new concepts.
The rapid rise of new technologies actually creates greater opportunities for creating constructivist learning environments. The belief that the best way to learn something is through authentic interaction has always been hindered by the sometimes limited opportunities for interaction caused by socio-economic realities. However, the increasing availability of computers and the games that drive them creates new opportunities for authentic interaction for all students.

References
CitEd Research Center. (n.d.). Learning with Computer Games and Simulations. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from cited.org: http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=143
Falance, T. (2001). Constructivism. In K. L. Medsker, & K. A. Holdsworth (Eds.), Models and Strategies for Training Design (pp. 213-234). Silver Spring: International Society for Performance Improvement.
Gee, J. P. (2003, May). High Score Education. Retrieved April 2011, from Wired.com: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.05/view.html?pg=1

Using games in education

April 15, 2011 Leave a comment

When I first returned to education as a teacher rather than a learner, I was in Europe in a country still recovering from 50 years of communist rule. Technology was still overpriced, and internet access was limited and relatively slow. Strikingly, what I found when I entered a classroom of young elementary students was a driving desire for more technologically driven lessons, and vastly more access to technologically based content.

On returning to the US, I entered public education with a strong belief that education had changed dramatically since I was a student. I expected computer based learning, student research and discovery through the internet, and computer savvy instruction. Unfortunately, what I found, at least in the urban school district in which I work, was a drive to teach students how to pass tests, computers too old to function, and teachers with no understanding of how to integrate technology in their classrooms. As Prensky (2001) points out, today’s teachers and learners are from different worlds. Every day in my classroom, I struggle to engage students in paper and pencil, competing for their attention with the console games they have been playing at home. To today’s students, 3D virtual worlds with a constant level of excitement and activity are a minimum expectation for their attention.

As I have been playing games and trying to view them both as a gamer and as an educator, I have given extensive thought to how to capture that excitement. I have thought about using games at both extremes, from completely immersive classrooms to trying to build an environment without games that is somehow competitive. Obviously when looking at this question, the instinct is to push to the middle, and try to find a way to use games to capture attention, and then bring the students back to a more traditional form of learning. Since the ultimate goal of this course is to design instructions for teachers on how to use a particular game in the classroom, I starting thinking about how I would build a lesson plan. I began thinking back to a lesson I had taught this year, and about one of the games I have played for this course, Settlers 7. One lesson I taught in Social Studies this year was about community interdependence. My students, who are all from low-income families, have, in large part, never left their communities, and had difficulty comprehending this global subject. One of the most engaging aspects of this game to me was the need to manage the interdependence of the conquered communities in this game. Each community has specific resources that can only be properly utilized in combination with other resources. Communities must trade and share to survive. We worked on this concept for a week, with varying levels of success, and I wonder if I might have had better success with a day spent on this game. The game has a very effective tutorial that would have been sufficient for most students to gain a rudimentary understanding of the game details. As Carvin (2008) points out, games need to strike a balance between pushing the skill level of a student, without being too difficult. Given that new background knowledge, it might have been easier to scaffold the real world implications for the students to understand it more deeply.

References
Carvin, A. (2008, March). Should Video Games Replace Classroom Learning? Retrieved April 2011, from pbs.org: http://www.pbs.org/teachers/learning.now/2008/03/should_video_games_replace_cla.html
Prensky, M. (2001). The Digital Game-Based Learning Revolution. Retrieved April 2011, from discoveryproject.net: http://www.discoverproject.net/italy/images/the%20digital%20game-based%20learning%20revolution.pdf

Categories: Learning Games